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Periosteal Ewing Sarcoma with Distant Metastases: Report of Two Patients and Review of the Literature

Periosteal Ewing sarcoma (ES) is an exceedingly rare topographic subtype of the ES. To our knowledge, only 60 patients have been reported in the medical English language literature.

It predominantly affects men in the second decade of life and arises in the long tubular bone diaphysis.

PES rarely develops distant metastases. We report two patients of this rare ES location that were found on the distal tibial shaft and proximal femoral diaphysis of a 21-year-old man and an 8-year-old boy, respectively.

Both patients were treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy, wide resection, and adjuvant chemotherapy.

One of our patients had lung metastases at the time of diagnosis and died 5 years later.

The other patient presented intramedullary humeral bone metastasis 19 years after diagnosis. There has been no evidence of disease in the 26 years of follow-up. Close follow-up of periosteal ES is recommended because distant metastases may exceptionally occur, even several years after diagnosis.